SMARTGREENS 2015 Abstracts


Area 1 - Sustainable Computing and Communications 

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Agent-based Transportation Demand Management - Demand Effects of Reserved Parking Space and Priority Lanes in Comparison and Combination

Authors:

Markus C. Beutel, Sebastian Addicks, Barbara S. Zaunbrecher, Simon Himmel, Karl-Heinz Krempels and Martina Ziefle

Abstract: Fostering the usage of alternative mobility modes, e.g., carsharing or carpooling becomes more and more urgent in modern urban planning. Politicians and city planners have already recognized that putting targeted incentives can influence people’s mobility behavior in an effective way. Agent-based simulations of transportation demand can be a valuable tool to support these planning processes. This work is based on a state-of-the-art transportation demand simulation and shows modeling and simulation modifications related with agents under the influence of incentives. These agents have been assessed in qualitative and quantitative studies prior to the simulation. Results show that agent-based simulation of transportation demand is suitable to evaluate impacts of transportation demand management measures. More specifically, all investigated measures show certain impacts on mobility mode choice, at which an incentive combination is most effective.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Using Flexibility Information for Energy Demand Optimization in the Low Voltage Grid

Authors:

Sandford Bessler, Domagoj Drenjanac, Eduard Hasenleithner, Suhail Ahmed-Khan and Nuno Silva

Abstract: Flexibility information that characterizes the energy consumption of certain loads with electric or thermal storage has been recently proposed as a means for energy management in the electric grid. In this paper we propose an energy management architecture that allows the grid operator to learn and use the consumption flexibility of its users. Starting on the home asset level, we describe flexibility models for EV charging and HVAC and their aggregation at the household and low voltage grid level. Here, the aggregated energy controller determines power references (set points) for each household controller. Since voltage limits might be violated by the energy balancing actions, we include a power flow calculation in the optimization model to keep the voltages and currents within the limits. In simulation experiments with a 42 bus radial grid, we are able to support higher household loads by individual scheduling, without falling below voltage limits.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

A Context-free Smart Grid Model using Pretopologic Structure

Authors:

Guillaume Guérard, Soufian Ben Amor and Alain Bui

Abstract: The Power grid evolves, but its structure presents several gaps with the new numerical technologies, renewable energies and electric vehicles. The literature introduces the concept of Smart Grid, a system which takes into account the behaviour and the action of its agents. Studying the smart grid through modelling and simulation provides us with valuable results which cannot be obtained in the real world due to time and cost related constraints. Nevertheless, due to the complexity of the smart grid, achieving global optimization is not an easy task. In this paper, we propose a complex system approach to the smart grid modelling, accentuating on the representation of the structure. Thanks to this combination, the optimization can be achieved on a dynamic graph taking into account changes and network errors over time, with the ability to detect them.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Sustainable Computing and Communications - Internet Broadband Network of Things Applied to Intelligent Education

Authors:

Y. Iano, I. T. Lima, H. J. Loschi, T. C. Lustosa, O. S. Mesquita and A. Moretti

Abstract: Intelligent cities may be defined as territories characterized by a high capacity of learning and innovation, comprising in its structure the “Internet of Things”, developing, therefore, the creativity of its population, its institutions of knowledge generation and its digital infrastructures to communication and management of the knowledge. This structure has a great performance in the role of digital inclusion, allowing the possibilities to integration, social well-being promotion (e-inclusion), supplementary education (internet toward software application with great capacity to education) or in distant (e-learning) and professional development. Multimedia communication, it may reach the most remote points and be available full-time, benefiting, in addition, students with deficiencies and walking limitation to go to school, or with special needs of differentiate teaching to educational development, creating and promoting the intelligent education. The main Target to develop this study is to present a solution to network service bandwidth, considers media world speed and projects the implementation of GPON (Gigabyte-capable Passive Optical Networks) technology in access optical networks in the Brazil. Presenting an outcome comparison analysis obtained from the project performed to implement in Holambra city, São Paulo, Brazil, relating to the perspectives and standards of connectivity in the use of broadband networks in the world, showing the viability in the use of such modern technologies in the GPON broadband.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Integrating Building Automation Technologies with Smart Cities - An Assessment Study of past, Current and Future Interroperable Technologies

Authors:

Georgios Lilis, Gilbert Conus, Nastaran Asadi and Maher Kayal

Abstract: Future smart cities would integrate a wide range of mostly heterogeneous systems and ICT is an essential asset in the coordination of those. The smart buildings, a major smart cities research and development domain, should advance beyond the complex automation tools and the anticipated energy and comfort envelope. The universal convergence to technologies that would enable the seamless integration with the anticipated smart cities urban environment should be highlighted. Although it is a concept widely accepted for current and future developing standards, it is much less communicated across scientific fields as for example the urban development and building automation. Even worse its necessity, in the latter, is frequently challenged. This paper firstly will try to address the market and scientific criticism towards a fully web-services enabled building in a fair and transparent approach. Secondly it proposes a system as an interoperability layer able to build advanced managements schemes by integrating the assets of current automation and monitoring systems to the Internet backbone.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Interconnecting Smart Grids and Clouds to save Energy

Authors:

Anne-Cécile Orgerie

Abstract: Cloud computing is becoming an essential component for Internet services. However, its energy consumption has become a key environmental and economic concern. The distributed nature of Cloud infrastructures involves that their components are spread across wide areas, interconnected through different networks, and powered by diverse energy sources and providers, making overall energy monitoring and optimizations challenging. In this paper, we present the opportunity brought by the Smart Grids to exploit renewable energy availability and to optimize energy management in distributed Clouds. The presence of smart sensors which are both integrated into the electricity Grid and connected to the Internet, indeed offers for the first time the possibility of exploiting the availability of various energy sources, and of making complete energy measurements of all the Cloud resources – computing, storage and especially networking resources – problems which have previously been intractable.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Connecting Smart Grid Protocol Standards - A Mapping Model Between Commonly-used Demand-response Protocols OpenADR and MIRABEL

Authors:

Sevket Gökay, Markus C. Beutel, Houran Ketabdar and Karl-Heinz Krempels

Abstract: Heterogeneous smart grid systems operate with different and incompatible protocols. MIRABEL and OpenADR are prominent examples, providing intelligent demand respond functionalities. In principle of operation as in complexity, both protocols differ significantly, which results in a lack of inter-connectivity among themselves. Connecting these commonly used standards makes it possible to benefit from different protocol advantages and prevents from reconstructing whole smart grid systems for consolidation. Furthermore, it holds potentials for interoperability of individually produced smart grid components. This work contributes a conceptual mapping model between OpenADR and MIRABEL on the basis of a detailed protocol analysis, as well as an initial implementation.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

The EPOC Project - Energy Proportional and Opportunistic Computing System

Authors:

Nicolas Beldiceanu, Barbara Dumas Feris, Philippe Gravey, Sabbir Hasan, Claude Jard, Thomas Ledoux, Yunbo Li, Didier Lime, Gilles Madi-Wamba, Jean-Marc Menaud, Pascal Morel, Michel Morvan, Marie-Laure Moulinard, Anne-Cecile Orgerie, Jean-Louis Pazat, Olivier Roux and Ammar Sharaiha

Abstract: With the emergence of the Future Internet and the dawning of new IT models such as cloud computing, the usage of data centers (DC), and consequently their power consumption, increase dramatically. Besides the ecological impact, the energy consumption is a predominant criteria for DC providers since it determines the daily cost of their infrastructure. As a consequence, power management becomes one of the main challenges for DC infrastructures and more generally for large-scale distributed systems. In this paper, we present the EPOC project which focuses on optimizing the energy consumption of mono-site DCs connected to the regular electrical grid and to renewable energy sources.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Prospective Products and Benefits of the Green AGH Campus Project - Providing Scaled-down Future Smart Grid Experience

Authors:

Igor Wojnicki, Sebastian Ernst and Leszek Kotulski

Abstract: Smart grid stakeholders have partially opposing goals. New tools and utilities are needed to reach them. The paper discusses prospective products and benefits of the Green AGH Campus Project. The project provides energy management infrastructure being a test bed for future smart grid solutions. It is based on three main components: an Advanced Distribution Management System, a Power Data Warehouse and a Simulation System. Coupled together, they are capable of providing advices regarding either optimization of grid operations, or its design and topology. The optimizations are multicriteria and multivariant balancing stakeholders’ needs

Posters
Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Power Theft Detection in Microgrids

Authors:

Aryadevi Remanidevi Devidas and Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh

Abstract: Theft of electricity amounts to 1.5% GDP, of most of the developing nations like India. Hence there is a great need to detect power thefts in developing nations. In this paper, we have proposed a wireless network based infrastructure for power theft detection which caters to other functional requirements of the microgrid such as renewable energy integration, automatic meter reading etc. Algorithm for power theft detection (PTDA) which is proposed in this paper, works in the distributed intelligent devices of the microgrid infrastructure for power theft detection. The coordinated action of intelligent devices with PTDA in the microgrid infrastructure enables not only the detection of power theft, but the localization of power theft in the micro-grid. PTDA increases the 1) cost of communication 2) energy consumption of intelligent devices 3) packet latency, if any critical data is piggy backed with power theft data in micro-grid. To solve these issues, we have proposed EPTDNA (Efficient Power Theft Data Networking Algorithm) which uses the frequency of power theft detection and average power draw for power theft, for the efficient routing of power theft. The performance analysis and results given in this paper shows how EPTDNA solves the major issues with PTDA.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

A System for Energy Conservation Through Personalized Learning Mechanism

Authors:

Aryadevi Remanidevi Devidas, Sweatha Rachel George and Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh

Abstract: Several challenges exist in developing smart buildings such as the development of context aware algorithms and real-time control systems, the integration of numerous sensors to detect various parameters, integration changes in the existing electrical infrastructure, and high cost of deployment. Another major challenge is to optimize the energy usage in smart buildings without compromising the comfort level of individuals. However, the success of this task requires in depth knowledge of the individual and group behaviour inside the smart building. To solve the aforementioned challenges, we have designed and developed a Smart Personalised System for Energy Management (SPSE), a low cost context aware system integrated with personalized and collaborative learning capabilities to understand the real-time behaviour of individuals in a building for optimizing the energy usage in the building. The context aware system constitutes a wearable device and a wireless switchboard that can continuously monitor several functions such as the real-time monitoring and localization of the presence of the individual, real-time monitoring and detection of the usage of switch board and equipment, and their time of usage by each individual. Using the continuous data collected from the context aware system, personalized and group algorithms can be developed for optimizing the energy usage with minimum sensors. In this work, the context aware system was tested extensively for module performance and for complete integrated device performance. The study found the proposed system provides the opportunity to collect data necessary for developing a personalized system for smart buildings with minimum sensors.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

C.A.N.A.P.A. - Coltiviamo Azioni per Nutrire, Abitare, Pulire l'Aria (Cropping up Actions for Feeding, for Living and for Cleaning Air)

Authors:

Marcello Colao, Marcello Mastrorilli, Vincenzo Fornaro, Claudio Natile and Elvira Tarsitano

Abstract: The action aims at reintroducing and re-thinking hemp cultivation, with the purpose of sustainable recovery of highly polluted agricultural land surrounding ILVA, the huge steel plant in Taranto (Italy). Hemp (Cannabis sativa) can be used to reclaim the soils using an innovative, eco-friendly and low-cost technique called phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the direct use of plants, and their associated microorganisms, to stabilize or reduce contamination in soils, sludges, sediments, surface water, or ground water. Hemp is suitable to be used to recover soils, since it easily grows under different pedo-climatic conditions, hemp can be re-introduced in current cropping systems. Hemp produces high exploitable biomass for the non-food sector. For this reason several experiments have started in order to test industrial hemp and the real ability to recover soils. The experimental data actually encourage to use hemp to reclaim soils contaminated with heavy metals, dioxins, PCBs. It would be necessary to extend the test for collecting definitive data on its effective use to remediate contaminated soils with inorganic and/or organic pollutants.

Area 2 - Energy-Aware Systems and Technologies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Optimization of Coil Parameters for a Nonlinear Two Degree-of-Freedom (2DOF) Velocity-amplified Electromagnetic Vibrational Energy Harvester

Authors:

Elisabetta Boco, Valeria Nico, Declan O'Donoghue, Ronan Frizzell, Gerard Kelly and Jeff Punch

Abstract: A 2DOF velocity amplified electromagnetic vibrational energy harvester is analyzed. The system consists of two masses, one larger than the other, oscillating relative to each other in response to external excitation. The large mass is designed with a centrally located cavity into which a second smaller mass is placed. This configuration allows the larger mass to impart momentum to the smaller mass during impact, which significantly amplifies the velocity of the smaller mass. By coupling high strength magnets (placed on the larger mass) and a coil (embedded in the smaller mass), an electric current is induced in the coil through the relative motion of the two masses. To intensify the magnetic field, the magnets are arranged with alternating polarity within the soft-iron body of the larger mass. Between the two masses, and between the larger mass and the support, four springs are placed. The smaller mass is designed to disconnect from the larger mass, when input vibrations of sufficient magnitude are present, and this leads to significant nonlinearity in the system response, which is well described by its transfer function. The nonlinearity leads to an increased bandwidth over which the system can harvest energy. As a further improvement, the energy harvester is optimized by changing the properties of the coil. Four different coils are compared in terms of their voltage and power output. Finally, a theoretical model is proposed in order to predict the optimal configuration.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Bottom-up Analysis of the Solar Photovoltaic Potential for a City in the Netherlands - A Working Model for Calculating the Potential using High Resolution LiDAR Data

Authors:

B. B. Kausika, O. Dolla, W. Folkerts, B. Siebenga, P. Hermans and W. G. J. H. M. van Sark

Abstract: This paper presents a working model to estimate the solar photovoltaic potential using high- resolution LiDAR data and Geographic Information Systems. This bottom-up approach method has been selected to arrive at the potential as this gives a better estimate than a top-down approach. The novelty of the study lies in estimating the potential at high resolution and classifying the rooftop as suitable or not for solar photovoltaic installations based on factors like irradiation, slope and orientation. The city of Apeldoorn in the Netherlands has been selected as the study area. The model was able to successfully locate suitable sites for photovoltaic installations at rooftop level. In addition, the area feasible for the installations and the potential power output has also been calculated. We conclude that the city has a potential of 319 MWp capacity, which would yield 283.9 GWh/yr in relation to the 304 GWh/yr consumption from residential buildings in the area.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Central Model Predictive Control of a Group of Domestic Heat Pumps - Case Study for a Small District

Authors:

R. P. van Leeuwen, J. Fink and G. J. M. Smit

Abstract: In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and algorithms used for the prediction and planning steps in order to obtain a planning for the heat pumps. The optimization algorithm minimizes the maximum peak electricity demand of the district. Simulated results demonstrate the resulting aggregated electricity demand, the obtained thermal comfort and the state of charge of the domestic hot water storage for an example house. Our results show that a model predictive control outperforms conventional control of individual heat pumps based on feedback control principles.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

DeLi2P - A User Centric, Scalable Demand Side Management Strategy for Smart Grids

Authors:

Syed Muhammad Ali, Mohammad Naveed, Fahad Javed, Naveed Arshad and Jahangir Ikram

Abstract: Smart grids coulpled with effiicient demand side management (DSM) is an important step for greener cities of the future. DSM has the potential to significantly improve smart grid operations by reducing the peak to average ratio. Current DSM schemes are able to reduce peak load by as much as 30% which can translate to significant cost savings and reduction in green house emissions. But for realistic deployment of DSM systems in the grid there are two very important aspects which need to be considered: scalability and user acceptability. Since the current DSM algorithms are required to control potentially hundreds of thousands of devices, they have to be scalable and tractable for such myriad numbers. On the other hand DSM affects the life style of the consumer and this should be as less disruptive as possible. The various DSM techniques proposed in the literature attempt to first reduce the cost and then attempt to resolve one of the two aforementioned aspects. The result is that the techniques are either scalable or are only considerate of the deadlines of the consumers. An ideal system should cater to both of these aspects. Our system Deli2P is user centric and scalable thus catering to both of these aspects. Essentially we provide to the consumer a deadline centric interface. The deadlines solutions are generally not scalable. But instead of solving this problem as a scheduling for deadline problem we transform the problem to a priority-based problem thus making it scalable for large number of devices. Our results show that with this scheme we can reduce peak power by upto 30% but without violating consumers` deadlines.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Comfort-constrained Demand Flexibility Management for Building Aggregations using a Decentralized Approach

Authors:

L. A. Hurtado, E. Mocanu, P. H. Nguyen, M. Gibescu and W. L. Kling

Abstract: In the smart grid and smart city context, the energy end-user plays an active role in the operation of the power system. The rapid penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and Distributed Energy Resources (DER) requires a higher degree of flexibility on the demand side. As commercial and Industrial buildings (C&I) buildings represent a substantial aggregation of loads, the intertwined operation of the electric distribution network and the built environment is to large extent responsible for achieving energy efficiency and sustainability targets. However, the primary purpose of buildings is not grid support but rather ensuring the comfort and safety of its occupants. Therefore, the comfort level needs to be included as a constraint when assessing the flexibility potential of the built environment. This paper proposes a decentralized method for flexibility allocation among a set of buildings. The method uses concepts from non-cooperative game theory. Finally, two case of study are used to evaluate the performance of the decentralized algorithm, and compare it against a centralized option. It is shown that flexibility requests from the grid operator can be met without deteriorating the comfort levels.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Voltage Control with Local Decisions in Low Voltage Distribution Grids with DER Penetration

Authors:

António Grilo and Mario Nunes

Abstract: This paper presents two droop-based voltage control algorithms that try to achieve maximum generation by Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), while keeping the voltage levels within the operating limits. One of the algorithms is based on gradual adaptation using small power increments/decrements, while the other algorithm is based on a linear approximation of the function that relates the generated power with the voltage measured at the DER coupling point. These algorithms were comparatively evaluated against a state-of-the-art connect/disconnect scheme and an optimal centralized algorithm. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed distributed algorithms approaches that of the centralized algorithm, with the incremental algorithm presenting faster convergence than the linear algorithm.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Seasonally Aware Routing for Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:

Aristotelis Kollias and Ioanis Nikolaidis

Abstract: Energy-aware routing schemes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often employ artificial energy assumptions, e.g., equal initial energy reserves for all nodes. Instead, we consider the case of realistic energy reserves collected via thermoelectric energy harvesting in an apartment complex and examine how the harvested energy impacts routing decisions over relatively large time frames. We formulate the corresponding multi-commodity routing flow problem and, using real observed data, remark that maximizing the volume of collected data typically leads to an uneven collection from each sensor. We propose a corresponding adjustment to the optimization problem to derive a “fair” data collection strategy. We additionally present a low overhead method of constructing a seasonally–aware routing scheme and study its performance. We compare the seasonally– aware routing performance against that of an ideal, centralized, optimization solution, as well as against a simple strategy to avoid extreme variance of residual energy at the sensor nodes.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

A Sensitivity Study of PMU-based Fault Detection on Smart Grid

Authors:

Richard Barella, Duc Nguyen, Ryan Winter, Kuei-Ti Lu, Scott Wallace, Xinghui Zhao and Eduardo Cotilla-Sanchez

Abstract: Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are widely used in power transmission systems to provide synchronized measurements for the purpose of fault detection. However, how to efficiently deploy those devices across a power grid – so that a comprehensive coverage can be provided at a relatively low cost – remains a challenge. In this paper, we present a sensitivity study of a PMU-based fault detection method using three different distance metrics. This study can serve as a guideline for efficient PMU deployment. To illustrate the effectiveness of this approach, we have derived an alternative PMU placement plan for a power grid. Experimental results show that our PMU placement reduces the required PMU deployment by more than 80% as compared to the original placement, yet still provides similar level of accuracy in fault detection.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics of Active Components in Intelligent Electric Power Systems

Authors:

Konstantin Suslov, Svetlana Solodusha and Dmitry Gerasimov

Abstract: The research is aimed at developing algorithms for the construction of automated systems to control active components of the electrical network. The construction of automated systems intended for the control of electric power systems requires high-speed mathematical tools. The method applied in the research to describe the object of control is based on the universal approach to the mathematical modelling of nonlinear dynamic system of a black-box type represented by the Volterra polynomials of the N-th degree. This makes it possible for the input and output characteristics of the object to obtain an adequate and fast mathematical description. Results of the computational experiment demonstrate the applicability of the mathematical tool to the control of active components of the intelligent power system.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

An Empirical Study of Real-time Feedback and Dynamic Pricing Effects on Electric Power Consumption - Field Experiment on a Remote Island in Japan

Authors:

Koji Shimada, Yuki Ochi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Matsugi and Takao Awata

Abstract: The management of electric power demand is a key element in the creation of smart-energy communities. We are engaged in a field experiment with the participation of 51 households on Nushima Island, one of the remote islands of Japan, to study the effects of real-time feedback and dynamic pricing on electric power consumption using smart meters and tablet PCs. From the results of panel data analysis, we have found that these measures achieve an estimated saving of 22 percent in electric power consumption when the tablet PCs are accessed three times per day.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

High Frequency Non-intrusive Electric Device Detection and Diagnosis

Authors:

Roman Jonetzko, Matthias Detzler, Klaus-Uwe Gollmer, Achim Guldner, Marcel Huber, Rainer Michels and Stefan Naumann

Abstract: The number of electronic devices in households as well as in industrial workplaces is continuously growing because of progress in automation. Identifying unusual operating behavior, detecting device failures in advance, and recognizing energy saving potentials are key features to improve the reliability, safety, and profitability of those systems. Facing these tasks, todays research is focused inter alia on a non-intrusive load monitoring approach, where the electrical signal is measured at a central point with modern hardware and processed by pattern recognition algorithms. Thus, we developed a smart meter prototype with a high sampling frequency, which allows for continuous measurement of the current and voltage from three-phase power lines. Besides this, in this paper we describe the usage of current-only measurement data (simple and safe installation using current transformers) with which we were able to classify state changes of a mobile air-conditioner with the help of Fourier descriptors as well as with additional voltage measurement.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Price based Unit Commitment with Wind Generation and Market Clearing Price Variations

Authors:

Vaidyanath Ramachandran, Junbiao Han, Sarika Khushalani Solanki and Jignesh Solanki

Abstract: Bidding plays an important role for Gencos (Generation Companies) participating in competitive electricity markets with the objective of maximizing profit. The characteristics of generators and price uncertainty need to be considered while formulating bidding strategies as they have a direct impact on expected profit. The rapid development of wind technology leads to an increasing share of wind power in the market and should be considered for calculating the Market Clearing Price (MCP). In this paper, the effects of wind intermittency on MCP variations of the wind farm generators are considered for the price based unit commitment strategy of the Genco. Simulations are performed on an IEEE 30-bus test system with wind farm that indicate significant corrections in day ahead forecasted PBUC (Price Based Unit Commitment) schedule and real time dispatch schedule of the Genco for optimal bidding.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Power Capping of CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Systems using Power and Performance Models

Authors:

Kazuki Tsuzuku and Toshio Endo

Abstract: Recent high performance computing (HPC) systems and supercomputers are built under strict power budgets and the limitation will be even severer. Thus power control is becoming more important, especially on the systems with accelerators such as GPUs, whose power consumption changes largely according to the characteristics of application programs. In this paper, we propose an efficient power capping technique for compute nodes with accelerators that supports dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS). We adopt a hybrid approach that consists of a static method and a dynamic method. By using a static method based on our power and performance model, we obtain optimal frequencies of GPUs and CPUs for the given application. Additionally, while the application is running, we adjust GPU frequency dynamically based on real-time power consumption. Through the performance evaluation on a compute node with a NVIDIA GPU, we demonstrate that our hybrid method successfully control the power consumption under a given power constraint better than simple methods, without aggravating energy-to-solution.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Fine-tuning Genetic Algorithm for Photovoltaic-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid System Optimization

Authors:

Mustapha Hatti and Hachemi Rahmani

Abstract: European cities have established programs integrating the energy, transport and ICT sectors in order to deliver more efficient services for their populations. The paper tackles the study of feasibility to implement fuzzy logic control into an energetic hybrid system and to optimize the membership functions of the fuzzy logic controller for the Photovoltaic-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell hybrid system using genetic algorithm (GA). The paper deals with a fuzzy logic control strategy objective to produce electrical energy according to the demand, prone to the constraints and the dynamics of the physical load and intermittence of the energetic resource, by distributing the energy demand between the photovoltaic field and the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell system. Photovoltaic-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell is described in detail as well as system configuration and components' parameters. The second section devotes to demonstrating the design process of fuzzy logic control for Photovoltaic-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell hybrid System. Finally, the optimal control problem is addressed and genetic algorithm is introduced to help find a set of optimum parameters in the fuzzy logic controller, best results are obtained and good optimization of the hybrid system is highlighted.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

Analyzing Multi-microgrid with Stochastic Uncertainties Including Optimal PV Allocation

Authors:

H. Keshtkar, J. Solanki and S. Khushalani Solanki

Abstract: This paper presents the effects of Photovoltaic (PV) location on losses of the distribution system. The optimal location of PV is determined by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) implemented in MATLAB-OpenDSS environment. IEEE 34-node test feeder is employed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed method. Once the optimal location is determined the challenge still remains due to the uncertain behavior of the PV system. This effect along with other stochastic behaviors such as the uncertain output power of loads like Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) due to their stochastic charging and discharging, that of a wind generation unit due to the stochastic wind speed, and that of a solar generating source due to the stochastic illumination intensity, add problems like frequency oscillations in a microgrid. Hence, frequency control of a multi microgrid system is also addressed.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Combined Visual Comfort and Energy Efficiency through True Personalization of Automated Lighting Control

Authors:

C. Malavazos, A. Papanikolaou, K. Tsatsakis and E. Hatzoplaki

Abstract: Lighting consumes a sizable portion of the energy consumed in office buildings. Smart lighting control products exist in the market, but their penetration is limited and even installed systems see limited use. One of the main reasons is that they control lighting based on universal set-points agnostic to individual human preferences, thus hampering their comfort. This paper presents an automated lighting control framework which dynamically learns user lighting preferences, models human visual comfort and controls light dimming in a truly personalized manner so as to always control the comfort vs. energy efficiency trade-off. It effectively removes the most important complaint when using such systems - loss of comfort - and paves the way for their wider scale adoption in order to untap the energy reduction potential of commercial lighting.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Overview of Socio-Economic Issues for Smart Grids Development

Authors:

Simona Bigerna, Carlo Andrea Bollino and Silvia Micheli

Abstract: The electrical world system is experiencing many challenges, including the increasing presence of renewable energy sources characterized by high variability, the call for actions to mitigate climate change, the need to restructure the infrastructure already aged and then the development of smart grids. Smart grid projects have been launched in various countries around the world. The transition to the smart grid is affecting primarily the European Union and the United States, but also emerging markets such as China and India are strongly investing in the smart grids. In this paper we analyze the socio-economic aspects that are among the key variables towards the feasibility of smart grid projects. Construction of new infrastructures generally rises acceptance problems. Social acceptance of consumers is important for the adoption of new technologies. We advocate that multidisciplinary cooperation is needed to develop scientific research on smart grids.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Test of New Control Strategies for Room Temperature Control Systems - Fully Controllable Surroundings for a Heating System with Radiators

Authors:

Nina Kopmann, Rita Streblow and Dirk Müller

Abstract: About one third of Germany’s energy demand is used for room heating thus offering a huge potential for energy savings. The development of intelligent home energy systems should optimize the energy consumption of buildings. In Germany the most common way to control the room temperature while heating is to use a thermostatic valve. This temperature-control system is self-sustaining but has no possibility to communicate to the heating system or other devices in the household. For the test and development of new control strategies and the appropriate components a Hardware-in-the-Loop test bench for hydraulic network applications is developed at the E.ON Energy Research Center. This test bench allows the test of a heating system of a flat in a controllable surrounding under dynamic boundary conditions. In this paper the new test bench concept will be described.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

multiFLEX: Flexible Multi-utility, Multi-service Smart Metering Architecture for Energy Vectors with Active Prosumers

Authors:

Edoardo Patti, Enrico Pons, Dario Martellacci, Federico Boni Castagnetti, Andrea Acquaviva and Enrico Macii

Abstract: In order to move forward the vision of Smart Grid, a flexible multi-utility and multi-service metering architecture is needed to allow innovative services and utilities for the different actors playing in this scenario. To achieve this, different meters (e.g. electric, water, heating and gas meters) must be integrated into a distributed architecture in order to gather and analyse heterogeneous data. Hence, such architecture provides in real-time a complete overview of the energy consumption and production in the grid from different prospectives. From customer viewpoint, this information can be used to provide user awareness and suggest green behaviours, thus reducing energy waste. From energy operator or utility provider viewpoint, for instance such analysis can: i) improve the demand response for optimizing the energy management during peak periods; ii) profile consumer energy behaviours for predicting the short term energy demand; iii) improve energy and market efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of this infrastructure and its expected impacts on utility providers, energy operators and customers.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Secondary Control in AC Microgrids - Challenges and Solutions

Authors:

Omid Palizban and Kimmo Kauhaniemi

Abstract: The hierarchical control structure of a microgrid can be described as consisting of four levels: processing, sensing and adjusting, monitoring and supervising, and maintenance and optimizing. This paper focuses on the secondary control level, which can be classified as centralized or decentralized control. A comprehensive investigation of both centralized and decentralized control is presented in this paper. Decentralized control is proposed in order to deal with some of the disadvantages of central control, such as the high risk of unplanned interruption arising from a Microgrid Central Controller (MGCC) malfunction. However, decentralized control is not yet complete, and some challenges to its implementation remain. This paper also looks at these challenges and proposes some solutions that may help to improve the performance of decentralized control and overcome its disadvantages. Finally, a general methodology of microgrid control is modeled.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

Citizens Collaboration to Minimize Power Costs in Smart Grids - A Game Theoretic Approach

Authors:

Tarek AlSkaif, Manel Guerrero Zapata and Boris Bellalta

Abstract: Generating the power necessary to run our future cities is one of the major concerns for scientists and policy makers alike. The increasing global energy demands with simultaneously decreasing fossil energy sources will drastically affect future energy prices. Strategies are already being implemented to develop solutions for the generation and efficient usage of energy at different levels. Involving citizens in the efficient planning and usage of power is a key. In this paper, we propose a game theory based power sharing mechanism between end-users in smart grids. We consider that citizens can produce some amount of electric power obtained from on-site renewable sources rather than just purchasing their whole demands from the grid. Simulation results show that consumers can achieve considerable cost savings if they adopt the proposed scheme. It is also noticed that the more the consumers cooperate, the higher the percentage of cost savings is.

Posters
Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Micro Grid Architecture for Line Fault Detection and Isolation

Authors:

Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, Neethu Mohan and Aryadevi Remanidevi Devidas

Abstract: One of the major problems power grids system face today is the inability to continuously deliver power at the consumer side. The main reason for this is the occurrence of faults and its long term persistence within the system. This persistence of faults causes the cascading failure of the system, thereby adversely affecting the connected loads. Traditional methods of fault isolation cause the shutdown of power to a large area to maintain the system stability. Today, localization of faults and its isolation is doing manually. Therefore, a localized fault recovery mechanism is very essential to maintain the system’s stability after the occurrence of a fault. In this paper, we have developed fast fault detection and isolation mechanism for single phase to neutral line fault in a three phase islanded micro grid scenario. The fault detection and isolation during the islanded operation mode of a micro grid is very critical, since bidirectional power flow is present. The fault detection mechanism we developed can detect and isolate the fault within a few milliseconds and localize the fault within a two second delay for both in single and bi-directional power flow scenarios. The proposed system is capable of locating the exact faulted segment with the aid of the communication network integrated into the power grid. The implemented system was tested with different ranges of fault current and the analysis showed that the proposed system could localize the fault with less than a two second delay.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Enhanced LZMA and BZIP2 for Improved Energy Data Compression

Authors:

Zaid Bin Tariq, Naveed Arshad and Muhammad Nabeel

Abstract: Smart grid is the next generation of electricity production, transmission and distribution system. This is possible through an overlayed communication layer with the power delivery layer. Due to this communication layer smart grids produce enormous amounts of data. This data may be analyzed for improving the quality of service of smart grids. However, handling such enormous amount of data is a challenge. LZMA and BZIP2 are two industrial strength compression techniques. In this paper we present an enhanced version of these two schemes specifically targeted to smart grid data through a pre-processing step. Our results show that while the original LZMA is able to compress the data size to around 80% our enhanced scheme using the preprocessing is able to reduce the size of the smart grid data to 98% on average.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

A New Approach to Power Consumption Reduction of Street Lighting

Authors:

Adam Sȩdziwy and Leszek Kotulski

Abstract: Annual energy costs of streetlighting power usage are expected to reach $23.9 billion to $42.5 billion by 2025. Those numbers encourage us to search any methods reducing energy consumption. In this article we propose a new approach to achieving power savings. The approach is based on combining daylight harvesting methodology and lighting class reduction. Its novelty relies on the analytically determined adjusting of fixtures' dimming levels which ensures the compliance with mandatory lighting standard. In the article we show appropriate test cases and give quantitative results of applying the proposed method.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context - Occupants in Spotlight

Authors:

Sanja Lazarova-Molnar, Mikkel Baun Kjærgaard, Hamid Reza Shaker and Bo Nørregaard Jørgensen

Abstract: Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within the context of performance of resident businesses. We examine both business performance and energy performance and how they relate to one another to conclude that building occupants, who are also employees, hold the key to optimizing both metrics in one of the most cost-efficient ways. Finally, the goal of our contribution is twofold: 1) to re-scope the concept of building performance to and show the importance to consider, hand-in-hand, both energy performance and performance of resident businesses, and 2) re-state the importance of the potential that lies in the active involvement of building occupants in optimizing overall building performance.

Area 3 - Smart Cities

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Smart City Technologies and Architectures - A Literature Review

Authors:

Christiana Kyriazopoulou

Abstract: The main goal of smart cities is to improve the traditional services that are provided to the citizens and also create new and more challenging ones. This vision aims not only to citizens’ prosperity, but also to economic progress and sustainability of the city. It is feasible to achieve this goal through the use of technologies and architectures which purpose is to integrate the various elements of the city and help them interact in an effective manner. In this paper, we discuss the key technologies and architectures that have already been proposed in the literature in order to find the appropriate ones to be implemented for the development of smart cities.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

In the Heart of Intelligent Buildings - Occupants Practices Facing Automation

Authors:

Amelie Coulbaut-Lazzarini and Guillaume Bailly

Abstract: In a changing world, with more and more people living in urban areas and more and more energy needs, managing energy consumption becomes essential. This papers focuses on energy management in tertiary buildings, and more precisely on behaviour and daily practices from occupants of these buildings. It will firstly show what are the required uses, with dedicated areas, and the place of automation. It will then try to explain what are the real practices, in terms of space use, lighting use strategies and reactions towards automation. It will further show how involving people, with participatory design of services and systems for smart buildings, can motivate behaviour change. Lastly, the discussion will question the idea of collective identity and the balance between automation and human action.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Renewable Energy-aware Data Centre Operations for Smart Cities - The DC4Cities Approach

Authors:

Sonja Klingert, Florian Niedermeier, Corentin Dupont, Giovanni Giuliani, Thomas Schulze and Hermann de Meer

Abstract: Data centres are important players in smart cities both as IT service providers and as energy consumers. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources into the local power grid is one challenge in future smart cities aiming at an IT based low carbon economy. The project DC4Cities takes up this challenge by offering a both technical and business related solution for optimizing the share of local renewable power sources when operating data centres in smart cities. To this end, power management options between the data centre and the smart city together with internal adaptation strategies for data centres are introduced. Finally, an implementation of the suggested approach is presented and evaluated in a simulation.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Guideline for Crowd Evacuation Simulation - Validation of a Pedestrian Simulator with RiMEA Test Scenarios

Authors:

Yayun Zhou, Wolfram Klein and Hermann Georg Mayer

Abstract: This paper introduces a way to verify a microscopic pedestrian simulator. The microscopic pedestrian simulator tested in this paper is developed by our group, which can be used to guide the crowd evacuation and prepare respond plans for emergent situations as reference to city council and law enforcement agency. It is important that the simulation results reveal the true behavior of pedestrian, for certain precaution actions can be taken in order to guarantee the safety of the crowd. Therefore, the simulator has to been tested and verified using different test scenarios. In this paper, we documented the performance of our simulator tested with all 14 scenarios proposed by the RiMEA (Richtlinie fur Mikroskopische Entfluchtungs-Analysen) guideline. The test results show that our simulator passes all the tests. Moreover, our pedestrian simulator constantly improves its performance by cooperating with construction companies and government departments running on-site tests with first-hand data. Now it covers emergency scenarios such as fire / smoke and floods.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Faster, Cheaper, Cleaner - Assessing Urban Mobility

Authors:

Gonçalo Salazar, João Pedro Silva and Bernardo Ribeiro

Abstract: This work aims at systematically characterizing urban mobility. There are several possible approaches to the problem but this work focus on reducing commuting times and emissions using the current infrastructures and without increasing the cost to the end user and doing so in an effective and sustainable way. A set of pairs of destinations and origins was chosen to represent usual commutes and cover a significant area of a city. These locations were connected by car, motorcycle, public transportation, cycling and walking. The routes were performed in both directions at three different times of day which allowed for a better understanding of daily traffic variations. For each route and for each mode of transportation the route and time taken were collected and the emissions and cost were estimated . The data was treated to adjust the route and gradient difference between the collected data and actual roads. Measurements and estimates were compared and averaged for all the routes and for each means of transportation providing an overall view of the commutes. The different means of transportation were compared and the limit to which one mode has the advantage over another was evaluated, this advantage is however dependent on the chosen route.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 17
Title:

A Data Model for Energy Decision Support Systems for Smart Cities - The Case of BESOS Common Information Model

Authors:

G. Anadiotis, E. Hatzoplaki, K. Tsatsakis and T. Tsitsanis

Abstract: Integrating Energy Management Systems is a necessary task in order to be able to offer a range of services for citizens and public authorities. This task requires integration at the data level in order to expose data coming from different systems in a unified way. In this paper we describe the creation of a Common Information Model to unify disparate Energy Management Systems in the context of the BESOS project. We identify related work, describe design decisions and methodology and give an outline of the data model itself, based on profiling and extending the IEC 61970 standard.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Social Acceptance and Its Role for Planning Technology Infrastructure - A Position Paper, Taking Wind Power Plants as an Example

Authors:

Barbara S. Zaunbrecher and Martina Ziefle

Abstract: It will be argued that there are major social gaps in the planning of complex energy infrastructure for public spaces: the first "gap" concerns the question if social acceptance can be reliably measured. The second “gap” refers to the lack of an integration of results from acceptance research into current planning procedures. Taking wind farm planning as an example, both social gaps are discussed and an integrative planning procedure is advocated. Finally, requirements for a user-centered planning process are formulated.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

Electricity and Heat Sector Coupling for Domestic Energy Systems - Benefits of Integrated Energy System Modelling

Authors:

Akhila Jambagi, Michael Kramer and Vicky Cheng

Abstract: A strong focus on reducing carbon emissions as well as the improvements in computing and control techniques for energy systems make it relevant to design energy systems in an integrated way. Coupling various energy sectors can offer many benefits in the way of flexibility and better utilisation of resources and infrastructures. To illustrate the benefits of coupling the heat and electricity sectors, a general model for a domestic energy system is developed, and two simulations are performed of domestic systems with sector coupling technologies. Further benefits can be gained by optimising the two systems together, implying that it can be advantageous to take an integrated optimisation approach for larger numbers of domestic systems.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

Methodology for Energy Efficiency Assessment in the Transport Sector for Smart Cities

Authors:

M. Fernanda Mantilla R., Angelica Nieto L., Jose L. Martinez Lastra and Elli Kotakorpi

Abstract: To measure the impact of transport projects in smart cities can be expensive and time-consuming. One challenge in measuring the effect of these projects is that impacts are poorly quantified or are not always immediately tangible. Due to transport projects nature, it is often difficult to show results in short term because much of the effort is invested in changing attitudes and behaviour on the mobility choices of city inhabitants. This paper presents a methodology that was developed to evaluate and define city transport projects for increasing energy efficiency. The main objective of this methodology is to help city authorities to improve the energy efficiency of the city by defining strategies and taking actions in the transportation domain. In order to define it, a review of current methodologies for measuring the impact of energy efficiency projects was performed. The defined energy efficiency methodology provides standard structure to the evaluation process, making sure that each project is being evaluated against its own goals and as detailed as it is required to the level of investment. An implementation in a smart city of the first step of this methodology is included in order to evaluate the implementation phase of the defined process.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

Definition of Key Performance Indicators for Energy Efficient Assessment in the Transport Sector

Authors:

R. M. Fernanda Mantilla, L. Angelica Nieto and Jose L. Martinez Lastra

Abstract: The transport sector is constantly growing as well as its complexity and energy consumption. One way to reduce the involvement and the volume of data to evaluate and monitor the energy efficiency of the sector for cities authorities is by using Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). This paper describes a set of KPIs to measure and track energy efficiency in the transport sector. The KPIs that are summarized in this paper were identified based on a literature review of mobility projects/strategies/policies that had been implemented in cities around the world. Future applications, which are presented at the end of this article, will give a better understanding of the systems and its components.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Parameters Affecting the Energy Performance of the Transport Sector in Smart Cities

Authors:

M. Fernanda Mantilla R., Angelica Nieto L. and Jose L. Martinez Lastra

Abstract: The energy requirements of cities’ inhabitants have grown during the last decade. Recent studies justify the necessity of reducing the energy consumption/emissions in cities. The present paper gives an overview of the factors affecting the energy consumption of the citizens based on studies conducted in cities across the globe. The studies cover all the factors that affect citizens’ mobility choice that at the end, affects in the same way their final energy consumption. The results of the review are being used to support authorities in mobility decisions in order to achieve a sustainable transport sector in smart cities.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Energy Book for Buildings - Occupants Incorporation in Energy Efficiency of Buildings

Authors:

Nastaran Asadi Zanjani, Georgios Lilis, Gilbert Conus and Maher Kayal

Abstract: This paper addresses a bottom-up approach for energy management in buildings. Future smart cities will need smart citizens, thus developing an interface to connect humans to their energy usage becomes a necessity. The goal is to give a touch of energy to occupants’ daily behaviours and activities and making them aware of their decisions’ consequences in terms of energy consumption, its cost and carbon footprint. Second, to allow people directly interacting and controling their living spaces, that means individual contributions to their feeling of comfort. Finally, a software solution to keep track of all personal energy related events is suggested and its possible features are explained.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

A Probabilistic Approach to Parking - Benefits of Routing Instead of Spotting

Authors:

Gabor Feher, Balazs Andras Lajtha and Akos Lovasz

Abstract: Urban parking is an important issue in all modern countries. Technological advances, with in-car sensors and always connected smartphones have already paved the way to an ICT solution for this problem. However, every attempt - including that of such a big companies, as Google - has failed to provide a suitable solution. So far, the appeared solutions were centered around the notion of free parking spots. This approach does not take into account the dynamics of the traffic and the drivers outside of the system. Here we propose a fundamentally different approach based on parking probabilities and parking routes. Our solution can truly reduce the time, resource and environmental damage wasted on parking place hunting, while keeping the operational costs low and the users satisfied.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Towards a Sustainable Smart Cities Integration in Teaching and Research

Authors:

Darya Bululukova and Harald Wahl

Abstract: The urban population growth and rapid urbanization are the key issues many of the European cities are currently dealing with. Vienna, as the one of the leading cities, embodies the smart cities goals and values. The new Smart City Wien Framework Strategy is more than a technological approach, furthermore, it emphasises importance of the social innovation. Nevertheless, the strategy lacks concrete goals for academic research and smart cities integration into educational programs. Little to no academic research discusses smart cities oriented study programs. This paper aims to close existing gap and proposes exemplary practical approach to integrate smart cities concepts at the academic level. Starting with the basic evaluation of the existing smart cities relevant study programs in the European area, we elaborate three interacting tracks for implementation: educational Web platform, postgraduate program and cross-departmental study programs including student projects. A practical, professional field-oriented and diversity-fair approach is chosen. The paper describes the status quo of the implementation process and in particular a cross-departmental study program. This exemplary implementation concept of smart cities may serve as a basis for universities with practice-oriented education to utilize own smart cities related studies.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Multi-resource Optimized Smart Management of Urban Energy Infrastructures for Improving Smart City Energy Efficiency

Authors:

Massimo Bertoncini

Abstract: This paper presents an innovative conceptual, technological and business framework for an energy-centred multi-resource optimized hub aimed at smart city infrastructure improved integration and improved energy efficiency and reduced carbon footprints. Early results show a cost-effective operation for the integration hub, as well as a 30% smart city/district energy efficiency overall increase when a synergistic operation management is carried out for those resource supply infrastructures which are integrated through the implemented hubs. Two major technological implementations have been presented and their current state of implementation has been discussed, the first one aimed at integrating smart electricity grid with hydrogen mobility infrastructure, while the latter one refers to a smart data centre hub interfacing with smart energy (both power and heat) grids and with telco networks.