SMARTGREENS 2017 Abstracts


Conference

SMARTGREENS 2017

Area 1 - Energy-Aware Systems and Technologies

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Global Solar Radiation Prediction Methodology using Artificial Neural Networks for Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems

Authors:

Jane Oktavia Kamadinata

Abstract: Solar radiation is an essential source of energy that has yet to be fully utilized. This energy can be converted into another form of more usable energy, electricity, by using photovoltaic power generation systems in order to fight against global warming. When the photovoltaic power generation systems are connected to an electrical grid, predicting near-future global solar radiation is important to stabilize the entire network. Two different simple methodologies utilizing artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the global solar radiation in 1 to 5 minutes in advance from sky images are developed and compared. In the first methodology, two ANNs are combined. The first ANN predicts cloud movement direction, while the second ANN predicts global solar radiation using the first ANN’s prediction results. On the other hand, a single ANN directly predicts global solar radiation in the second methodology. Both of the proposed methodologies are able to capture the trends of the global solar radiation well. Because the proposed methodologies only use limited number of sampling points, the computational effort is significantly reduced compared to the existing methodologies where the whole images need processing.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Optimal Scheduling of Heat Pumps for Power Peak Shaving and Customers Thermal Comfort

Authors:

Jochen L. Cremer and Marco Pau

Abstract: Final customers are expected to play an active role in the Smart Grid scenario by offering their flexibility to allow a more efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Among the household appliances, heat pumps used for space heating are commonly recognized as flexible loads that can be suitably handled to gain benefit in the Smart Grid context. This paper proposes an optimization algorithm, based on a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming approach, designed to achieve power peak shaving in the distribution grid while providing at the same time the required thermal comfort to the end-users. The developed model allows considering a continuous operation mode of the heat pumps and different comfort requirements defined by the users over the day. Performed simulations prove the proper operation of the proposed algorithm and the technical benefits potentially achievable through the devised management of the heating devices.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

A Stochastic Approach for Optimizing Green Energy Consumption in Distributed Clouds

Authors:

Benjamin Camus

Abstract: The energy drawn by Cloud data centers is reaching worrying levels, thus inciting providers to install on-site green energy producers, such as photovoltaic panels. Considering distributed Clouds, workload managers need to geographically allocate virtual machines according to the green production in order not to waste energy. In this paper, we propose SAGITTA: a Stochastic Approach for Green consumption In disTributed daTA centers. We show that compared to the optimal solution, SAGITTA consumes 4% more brown energy, and wastes only 3.14% of the available green energy, while a traditional round-robin solution consumes 14.4% more energy overall than optimum, and wastes 28.83% of the available green energy.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

An Adaptive Data Driven Approach to Single Unit Residential Air-conditioning Prediction and Forecasting using Regression Trees

Authors:

Clement Lork, Yuren Zhou and Rajasekhar Batchu

Abstract: Residential Air Conditioning (AC) load has a huge role to play in Demand Response (DR) Programs as it is one of the power intensive and interruptible load in a home. Due to the variety of ACs types and the different sizes of residences, modelling the power consumption of AC load individually is non-trivial. Here, an adaptive framework based on Regression Trees is proposed to model and forecast the power consumption of different AC units in different environments by taking in just 6 basic variables. The framework consists of an automatic feature selection process, a load prediction module, an indoor temperature forecasting module, and is capped off by a load forecasting module. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated using data set from an ongoing research project on air-conditioning system control for energy management in a residential test bed in Singapore. Experiments on highly dynamic loads gave a maximum Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 21.35% for 30min ahead forecasting and 27.96% for day ahead forecasting.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Decision Support for Structured Energy Procurement

Authors:

Florian Maier, Hicham Belhassan, Nikolai Klempp, Falko Koetter and Elias Siehler

Abstract: Infrastructure operators in Germany such as airports or factories are confronted with rising energy costs throughout the last years and consequently have to reconsider their energy supply and management. This competitive pressure raises the question of an optimal procurement strategy, which takes into account the individual organizational framework and conditions. In the context of the SmartEnergyHub research project this problem was addressed at the example of the Stuttgart Airport by the implementation of a decision support system to manage and evaluate long-term procurement plans. Uncertainties related to future price developments and load fluctuations have been taken into account with the help of a Monte Carlo simulation. Ex-post analysis show, that the cost of hedging has been between 10 - 15 % of stock procurement costs in the investigated scenarios due to falling energy stock prices. This raises the question, how much certainty in budget may cost. The developed software module creates transparency of the cost structure of historic procurements and facilitates the comparison of different future procurement plans with regard to expected costs and risks. The focus of the presented work lies on infrastructure operators, who follow a structured energy procurement strategy based on a long-term contract with a single energy supplier.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

Authors:

Zheng Ma and Henrik Tønder Aabjerg Friis

Abstract: Demand response is generally considered necessary for efficiently upholding grid balance with the increased intermittent production from renewable energy sources. Demand response is acknowledged to enhance the use of more renewable energy friendly technologies, such as heat pumps, electric vehicles, and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal process simulation.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Appliance Usage Prediction for the Smart Home with an Application to Energy Demand Side Management - And Why Accuracy is not a Good Performance Metric for this Problem

Authors:

Marc Wenninger

Abstract: Shifting energy peak load is a subject that plays a huge role in the currently changing energy market, where renewable energy sources no longer produce the exact amount of energy demanded. Matching demand to supply requires behavior changes on the customer side, which can be achieved by incentives such as Real-Time-Pricing (RTP). Various studies show that such incentives cannot be utilized without a complexity reduction, e. g., by smart home automation systems that inform the customer about possible savings or automatically schedule appliances to off-peak load phases. We propose a probabilistic appliance usage prediction based on historical energy data that can be used to identify the times of day where an appliance will be used and therefore make load shift recommendations that suite the customer’s usage profile. A huge issue is how to provide a valid performance evaluation for this particular problem. We will argue why the commonly used accuracy metric is not suitable, and suggest to use other metrics like the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) or F 1 -Score instead.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Optimal Sizing of Capacitor Banks to Reduce Power Losses - With Accounting of Temperature Dependence of Bare Overhead Conductors

Authors:

Vladimir Goryunov, Stanislav Girshin, Evgenii Kuznetsov and Aleksandr Bigun

Abstract: In carrying out a reactive power compensation it is necessary to select the powers of compensation units for minimizing the active power losses as well as minimize financial losses of installing the reactive power compensation units. Thus, there is a multi-factor optimization problem for sizing of reactive power compensation devices. The paper studied the effect of bare overhead conductors heating to the optimal choice of measures to reduce electricity losses by the example of reactive power compensation. We describe two stages in the selection of reactive power compensation devices and their clarification considering the grid elements temperature. We determine the economic efficiency calculations results of using reactive power compensation as measures to reduce losses in grids, with and without the grid elements temperature dependence consideration. We consider the data on the optimal choice of compensating devices and payback period determination depending on the load, the conductor type and the grid length. The research results can be applied in the optimization of existing systems and in the design of power supply systems of enterprises to reduce the active power losses with the minimal cost of compensation units.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Towards an Integrated Sustainability Evaluation of Energy Scenarios with Automated Information Exchange

Authors:

Jan Sören Schwarz, Tobias Witt, Astrid Nieße and Jutta Geldermann

Abstract: To reshape energy systems towards renewable energy resources, decision makers need to decide today on how to make the transition. Energy scenarios are widely used to guide decision making in this context. While considerable effort has been put into developing energy scenarios, researchers have pointed out three requirements for energy scenarios that are not fulfilled satisfactorily yet: The development and evaluation of energy scenarios should (1) incorporate the concept of sustainability, (2) provide decision support in a transparent way and (3) be replicable for other researchers. To meet these requirements, we combine different methodological approaches: story-and-simulation (SAS) scenarios, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), information modeling and co-simulation. We show in this paper how the combination of these methods can lead to an integrated approach for sustainability evaluation of energy scenarios with automated information exchange. Our approach consists of a sustainability evaluation process (SEP) and an information model for modeling dependencies. The objectives are to guide decisions towards sustainable development of the energy sector and to make the scenario and decision support processes more transparent for both decision makers and researchers.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Smart Grid Communication Middleware Comparison - Distributed Control Comparison for the Internet of Things

Authors:

Bo Petersen and Henrik Bindner

Abstract: Communication between Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is necessary to efficiently solve the intermittency issues caused by renewable energy, using DER power grid auxiliary services, primarily load shifting and shedding. The middleware used for communication determines which services are possible by their performance, which is limited by the middleware characteristics, primarily interchangeable serialization and the Publish-Subscribe messaging pattern. The earlier paper “Smart Grid Serialization Comparison” (Petersen et al. 2017) aids in the choice of serialization, which has a big impact on the performance of the communication as a whole. This paper identifies the dis-/advantages of the different middleware, shows that there are better alternatives to Web Services and XMPP, and gives guidance in choosing the most appropriate middleware depending on the context. YAMI4 and ZeroMQ are generally the strongest candidates for Smart Grid distributed control, but WAMP should also be considered in the future.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

Comfort-efficiency-equilibrium

Authors:

Antonios Karatzoglou, Julian Janßen and Vethiga Srikanthan

Abstract: Energy efficiency and thermal comfort depict two key topics in indoor climate controlling domain. HVAC systems are one of the biggest energy consumers in nowadays’ households and yet they have difficulties in reaching the users’ optimal comfort. We are presenting SVReCLCE, a proactive two-fold climate controlling approach that takes explicitly both energy consumption, as well as comfort in consideration. A user study in an office environment shows that our solution can in practice achieve up to 49% energy savings by keeping the personal comfort level high at the same time. Therefore, SVReCLCE sets a solid basis for future work in the field of climate control for low-energy buildings.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Using Scenarios for Interdisciplinary Energy Research - A Process Model

Authors:

Barbara S. Zaunbrecher, Thomas Bexten, Jan Martin Specht and Manfred Wirsum

Abstract: The transition towards renewable energies is not only a technical, but also an economic and social challenge. Without an economic perspective that takes into account risk and uncertainty, a technically feasible scenario can easily lead to financial losses. Likewise, a technically and economically feasible scenario which is not in line with public acceptance is difficult to implement and the diffusion of new technologies is hindered. It is therefore apparent that, for a holistic evaluation, new energy scenarios need to be considered from more than one perspective. The challenge in an interdisciplinary approach is to find a common analytical framework, which is a prerequisite to be able to integrate data and combine approaches from different disciplines into one holistic model. This paper suggests a process model for interdisciplinary collaboration and argues how within these, scenarios can be used as common frames of reference by taking a current interdisciplinary energy project as example. Finally, challenges and opportunities of the process model are discussed.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

A New ICT-based Modeling for the Power Grid

Authors:

N. Benjamin Sendama and Aawatif Hayar

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to propose a new theoretical and mathematical model that describes the energy flow over a microgrid, à small portion of a power grid. Indeed, there is similarity between a transmission channel made up of several transmitters/receivers and the microgrid involving various energy sources/consumers. This has been the premise which prompt us to conduct this study and develop a new model of the microgrid. The propounded model is not to contest or to interrogate electromechanical results about the flow of electricity. It rather brings another way of seeing the energy flow. Moreover, this framework bears in mind intermittent energy sources. The inclusion of renewable energy sources in the conventional power grid has to be taken into account in order to come up with a model that is faithful to the current state of the grid. On the basis of a MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) channel, the proposed architecture consists of a Single Virtual Power Source (SVPS) serving its energy at several energy consumption points. Its energy flow’s shape is a Gaussian as it will be demonstrated throughout this paper.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Three-phase Optimal Power Flow for Smart Grids by Iterative Nonsmooth Optimization

Authors:

Y. Shi

Abstract: Optimal power flow is important for operation and planning of smart grids. The paper considers the so called unbalanced thee-phase optimal power flow problem (TOPF) for smart grids, which involves multiple quadratic equality and indefinite quadratic inequality constraints to model the bus interconnections, hardware capacity and balance between power demand and supply. The existing Newton search based or interior point algorithms are often trapped by a local optimum while semidefinite programming relaxation (SDR) even fails to locate a feasible point. Following our previously developed nonsmooth optimization approach, computational solution for TOPF is provided. Namely, an iterative procedure for generating a sequence of improved points that converges to an optimal solution, is developed. Simulations for TOPF in unbalanced distributed networks are provided to demonstrate the practicability and efficiency of our approach.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

Charging/Discharging Behaviors and Integration of Electric Vehicle to Small-Scale Energy Management System

Authors:

Muhammad Aziz

Abstract: Integration of electric vehicle (EV) to support a small-scale energy management system (EMS) was demonstrated and studied. Initially, charging and discharging behaviours of electric vehicle in different seasons were evaluated to clarify the impact of surrounding temperature to charging and discharging rates. It was found that charging and discharging during summer results in higher rates than ones during winter. In addition, the integration of EVs to small-scale EMS (office) for peak-load shifting showed a very positive effect. Discharging of EVs during noon’s peak load can cut and shift the load. Therefore, higher contracted capacity of electricity can be avoided leading to lower total electricity cost.

Posters
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Demand-Response: Let the Devices Take our Decisions

Authors:

Guillaume Guérard

Abstract: The hierarchical, centrally controlled energy grid is ill-suited to the third digital revolution. The electric power industry is undergoing rapid change. The energy transition move from the current energy system using non-renewable resources to a smart grid, including distributed resources and home automation. Now, the demand is flexible and can be managed, it is called Demand-Side-Management (DSM). It encompasses different domains of reducing consumption, it can be both a physical standpoint than digital. In this paper, after a quick state of an art on DSM, we will focus on the digital way. The main idea is to create consumption’s schemes, thanks to home automation in order to find the best way to consume.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

A Participatory Design Approach for Energy-aware Mobile App for Smart Home Monitoring

Authors:

Alessandro Aliberti, Christian Camarda and Valeria Ferro

Abstract: It is generally recognized that our behaviours affect the environment. However, it is difficult to correlate behaviour of an individual person to large-scale problems. This is usually due to insufficient ergonomy of available tools. The main cause is that most of user-awareness tools available are technology-centered instead of user-centered. In this paper, we present a participatory design approach we followed to design and develop an energy-aware mobile application for user-awareness on energy consumption for Smart Home monitoring. To engage end-users from the early design stages, we conduct two on-line surveys and a focus group involving about 630 people. Results allowed on identifying functional requirements and guidelines for mobile app design. The purpose of this research is to increase user-awareness on energy consumption using tools and methods required by users themselves. Furthermore in this paper, we present the technological choices that drove our implementation of an energy-aware application based on prosumers’ requirements.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Optimizing Energy Consumption of Hot Water System in Buildings with Solar Thermal Systems

Authors:

Wen-Tai Li, Kannan Thirugnanam and Wayes Tushar

Abstract: This paper investigates the operation of a solar thermal system in a building, and seeks to craft a solution that would reduce the cost of electricity to the building manager, while concurrently ensuring that the water demand and the temperature of water are conform to the requirement of the building occupants. In particular, two energy management mechanisms are studies for controlling the multiple heat pumps that are connected to the solar thermal system for providing the system with heat when there is not enough solar energy. In this context, two control strategies are proposed, on-demanding control (ODC) and optimal day-ahead scheduling (ODS) with different degrees of information such as the water demand, weather, and so on. Moreover, three different types of scenarios are considered based on solar energy generation pattern and hot water demand of a commercial facility, and optimal number and operation schedules of heat pumps are identified for each of the scenario. It is shown that the ODS approach is more effective in saving energy and related costs in comparison with the systems ODC approach if the information of the weather conditions and hot demands are available for next 24 hours, and the performance improvement is corroborated numerically.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Proposed Model of Street Lighting System based on OFDM Operations for Smart Lighting

Authors:

Mehdi Laraki and Aawatif Hayar

Abstract: Abandoned for a very long time, because of the complexity of their Multi-Carrier techniques (Multi Carrier Modulation, MCM or Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDM), nowadays, the OFDM has become the strategic choice of several systems modern digital products. Its simplicity and flexibility, as well as the transmission, make them particularly interesting for communication systems. Inspired from Telecommunications field, especially from the OFDM Techniques, the aim of this paper, is to propose a model of street lighting system based on OFDM operations, this technique is used here control and to switch On/Off the street lamps and to launch a proposed waveform of voltage command of lighting when pedestrian or vehicle detections are occurred, even in cases of multi detections in streets or in other words branches of street lamps. This proposed model will allow us to illuminate intelligently by using a new strategy of voltage command of lighting and to reduce considerably the rate of power consumption during the lighting for smart lighting and so, contributing on having a smart city.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

A CO2 Emissions Accounting Framework with Market-based Incentives for Cloud Infrastructures

Authors:

David Margery, David Guyon, Anne-Cecile Orgerie, Christine Morin and Gareth Francis

Abstract: CO2 emissions related to Cloud computing reach nowadays worrying levels, without any reduction in sight. Often, Cloud users, asking for virtual machines, are not aware of such emissions which concern the entire Cloud infrastructures and are thus difficult to split into the actual resources utilization, such as virtual machines. We propose a CO2 emissions accounting framework giving flexibility to the Cloud providers, predictability to the users and allocating all the carbon costs to the users. This paper shows the architecture of our accounting framework and ideas on how to practically implement it.

Area 2 - Sustainable Computing and Communications

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 12
Title:

A Distributed ICT Architecture for Continuous Frequency Control

Authors:

Christian Giovanelli, Olli Kilkki, Antti Alahäivälä and Ilkka Seilonen

Abstract: The active participation of consumers in frequency control can mitigate the negative effects of variable renewable generation in a power system. This study aims at designing a distributed information and communication technology architecture for automated demand response. The distributed architecture enables a set of consumers to perform frequency control while being coordinated by an aggregator. Moreover, decision-making algorithms are designed to enable the demand response to participate in frequency control and to provide required reserves. An asynchronous message-oridented middleware is utilized to interface the consumers with the aggregator. In addition, the communication logic between the actors is defined. The distributed architecture is then evaluated through the implementation of a prototype application. Simulated results show that the designed architecture can be utilized for frequency control in automated demand response.

Posters
Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Green IS/IT: An Overview of Historical Periods, Recent Research Initiatives and Theoretical Approaches

Authors:

Nataliya Shevchuk

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss historical periods and recent research initiatives and theoretical approaches to Green Information Systems and Technologies (GIS/IT). Having observed that the GIS/IT history is an insufficiently investigated topic, we used Information Systems History (ISH) research methods, such as periodization, contextualization and generalization. With the help of exploring existing variety of theories and initiatives, we provide clarification of evolution of the GIS/IT concept and explore areas in industry and research that are currently lacking insight. Our methodological diversification of the GIS/IT research assists not only in summarizing the current state of the GIS/IT but also in encouraging ideation and cooperation of the academics from different fields to produce novel outlooks on the GIS/IT.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

An Energy-aware Brokering Algorithm to Improve Sustainability in Community Cloud

Authors:

Maurizio Giacobbe and Marco Scarpa

Abstract: Cloud computing is a paradigm for large scale distributed infrastructures, platforms or software services which represents a hot topic in Information Technology (IT) recently in both industrial and academic areas. Its use is motivated by the possibility to promote a new economy of scale in different contexts. Along with the well-known public, private and hybrid Cloud models, the Community Cloud is an emerging concept based on a deployment model in which a Cloud infrastructure allows a specific community of consumers to share interests, goals and responsibilities. It can be owned and managed by the community, by a third party, or a combination of them. In such scenario, new low-carbon strategies at Cloud sites are necessary to allow those latter to reduce the consumption in presence of a massive exploitation of IT services. Therefore, balancing performances with both sustainability and cost saving concepts is a challenge. In this paper, we present a low carbon strategy designed to make the best choice in resources allocation, based on sustainability, availability and costs. The proposed energy-aware Brokering Algorithm (eBA) allows to push down carbon dioxide emissions through the Community Cloud ecosystem, by running instances at the most convenient sites.

Area 3 - Smart Cities

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 37
Title:

InterSCity: A Scalable Microservice-based Open Source Platform for Smart Cities

Authors:

Arthur M. Del Esposte and Fabio Kon

Abstract: Smart City technologies emerge as a potential solution to tackle common problems in large urban centers by using city resources efficiently and providing quality services for citizens. Despite the various advances in middleware technologies to support future smart cities, there are no universally accepted platforms yet. Most of the existing solutions do not provide the required flexibility to be shared across cities. Moreover, the extensive use and development of non-open-source software leads to interoperability issues and limits the collaboration among R&D groups. In this paper, we explore the use of a microservices architecture to address key practical challenges in smart city platforms. We present InterSCity, a microservice-based open source smart city platform that aims at supporting collaborative, novel smart city research, development, and deployment initiatives. We discuss how the microservice approach enables a flexible, extensible, and loosely coupled architecture and present experimental results demonstrating the scalability of the proposed platform.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Identifying Points of Interest for Elderly in Singapore through Mobile Crowdsensing

Authors:

Marakkalage Sumudu Hasala, Billy Pik Lik Lau, Viswanath Sanjana Kadaba, Balasubramaniam Thirunavukarasu and Chau Yuen

Abstract: This paper introduces a crowdsensing approach to identify the points of interest (POI) among the elderly population in Singapore. We have developed a smartphone application, which passively collects sensors’ information (e.g. GPS location) on users’ mobile devices. Using such information, we can identify popular regions and places among the elderly that could be useful for city planner in preparation for aging population. Our results demonstrate different check-in patterns of various POI, and the elderly spend nearly 70% of non-home duration around their neighborhood.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Where, Wherefore, and How? - Contrasting Two Surveillance Contexts According to Acceptance

Authors:

Julia van Heek

Abstract: Surveillance technologies are used all over the world for various reasons. In urban environments, surveillance technologies are predominantly used for detecting or preventing crimes. Simultaneously, an increasing number of technologies are used for medical monitoring at home, but also at clinical facilities, and at public environments for assuring patients’ medical safety. An intensive policy discussion about perceived advantages (especially increasing safety) and perceived barriers (in particular the invasion of privacy) comes along with the use of surveillance technologies. In this paper, it is examined where and for which contexts the use of surveillance technologies is accepted and under which conditions safety or privacy is perceived as more important. We investigate the acceptance of surveillance technologies for medical and crime surveillance scenarios using a conjoint analysis approach including four relevant aspects: location of surveillance, increase in safety, invasion of privacy, and the applied camera type. Results show both, context independent findings as well as context-sensitive findings: e.g., for crime surveillance, the location is most important followed by the trade-off between privacy and safety, while these three factors are of similar importance for medical surveillance. From a practical viewpoint, the findings might contribute to a differentiated surveillance policy in cities.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

Urban and Building Accessibility Diagnosis using ‘Accessibility App’ in Smart Cities - A Case Study

Authors:

Raquel Pérez-delHoyo and María Dolores Andújar-Montoya

Abstract: In the context of economic and technological changes arised from globalization, cities face the challenge of conceiving models capable of combining both competitiveness and sustainable urban development. The increasing body of knowledge in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offers methods to exploit the huge potential of technological advances, enabling to increase productivity of industrial and business processes and improving the liveability of cities. One of the most important aspects that influence the liveability of cities is the ability to be an inclusive city. Thus, Smart Cities require an inclusive urban life, and they are characterized by being accessible cities. In this regard, this paper describes a method using the latest ICT for the analysis and diagnosis of the accessibility in buildings and urban environments. This method allows the collection of information on accessibility issues through the collaboration of citizens, as well as to organize and display it, so that administrations and institutions responsible for addressing accessibility issues can use it in order to take actions. In this context, a practical application of the method has been performed through a case study in the University of Alicante, with the objective of showing a real diagnosis of urban and building accessibility.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Towards Integrated Infrastructures for Smart City Services: A Story of Traffic and Energy Aware Pricing Policy for Charging Infrastructures

Authors:

Upama Nakarmi and Mahshid Rahnamay Naeini

Abstract: Developing smart-city solutions and services, which lead to optimal utilization of cities’ limited resources and enhancement of their reliability and efficiency, requires collaboration of currently vertical and isolated city infrastructures. The interdependency among critical infrastructures makes such collaborative solutions even more essential. In this paper, two of such critical infrastructures, including the electric-vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure and the electric infrastructure, are considered and an integrated framework for modeling their interactions are developed. This model is a probabilistic model based on a networked Markov chain framework, which enables capturing of stochastic aspects of these two systems and how they affect each other. Using the developed model and a proposed algorithm, which works hand in hand with the model, charging prices are assigned for the EV charging stations with the goal of increasing the likelihood of having balanced charging and electric infrastructures. The role of the cyber infrastructure in such collaborative solutions are discussed through the charging and power infrastructure pricing scheme. The presented results show the importance of integrated modeling and the pricing solution, which considers the state of both systems. We hope that this study and modeling approach can be extended to other smart city solutions and other interdependent infrastructures.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Energy Efficiency of a Multizone Office Building: MPC-based Control and Simscape Modelling

Authors:

Farah Gabsi and Frederic Hamelin

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of modelling and controlling a multi-zone office building to ensure its thermal comfort by an optimal and cost effective management of the energy consumption. A thermal behaviour analysis of the building is carried out using the SimscapeTM library in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment that leads to a multi-model representation. Based on this modelling, the Yalmip toolbox in the MATLAB programming environment or an iterative optimization algorithm can be used to solve the control optimisation problem. The design of a model predictive control associated with a wise choice of the cost function makes it possible to obtain in simulation substantial energy benefits.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

An Architectural Model for Smart Cities using Collaborative Spatial Data Infrastructures

Authors:

Aly C. S. Rabelo

Abstract: Smart cities make intense use of information technologies to capture data in real time in order to automate urban management and social actions. However, the implementation of this concept is hindered by its complexity and limitations in cities. Using a model that contains the basic concepts of a smart city ensures such basic concepts will be approached during specification, besides facilitating communication among designers and allowing the evolution of a smart city to be followed. The International Cartographic Association (ICA) has developed a formal model for Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) using the Enterprise, Information, and Computation viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) framework. Assuming that an SDI and volunteered geographic data (VGI) are key parts of a smart city, this study adapts ICA’s formal model for SDI with basic concepts that a smart city must have. The adapted model was applied in the specification of the Enterprise viewpoint of a system to reduce traffic congestion. The specification enabled exemplifying the importance of SDI and VGI in the context of a basic architecture for the implementation of applications aiming to turn small and medium-sized cities into smart.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

Smart Cities, Sustainable Cities, or Both? - A Critical Review and Synthesis of Success and Failure Factors

Authors:

Rasha F. Elgazzar and Rania El-Gazzar

Abstract: As the majority of world population will be living in cities by 2050, it became a necessity for societies to build cities that are capable of meeting the needs of current and future generations in a smart way. There have been initiatives toward smart/sustainable cities that had succeeded, and others had failed. Being sustainable and smart had been used in a quite confusing way. In this paper, we attempt to understand related concepts, such as smart, sustainable, sustainable development, and sustainability. Then, we analyse five examples of existing initiatives of smart/sustainable cities to understand the factors behind their success or failure, by applying SMART criteria as a managerial perspective on those initiatives. Finally, we conclude the paper with key implications and possibilities for future research.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Road Safety and Vulnerable Road Users - Internet of People Insights

Authors:

Bruno Fernandes

Abstract: Researchers have been setting their focus on improving the quality of life of the human being, especially at large urban centres. However, problems like crowding, traffic accidents or crime are still to be unscrambled. Indeed, one may use the amazing technological evolution the world is experiencing to mitigate such problems, focusing the Internet of Things in the creation of truly Smart Cities. Hence, this work intends to study and analyse relevant areas of intervention in Smart Cities, with special focus on the efforts being made to enhance the safety of those more vulnerable at the road, known as Vulnerable Road Users. Undeniably, one’s review shows that insufficient focus is being given to the use of the Internet of People to address this challenge, renouncing the possibility of access information such as position, pace, and physical and emotional conditions of the user. It becomes now imperative to shift the paradigm and proceed towards the Internet of People.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

Design and Implementation of Human Mobility Embedded System for Urban Planning of Smart City

Authors:

Anwar Al-Khateeb

Abstract: The mobility model will help us to simulate the movements of people more realistic as in real case. This paper developed human mobility system using random way point and random walk methods to model the individual movement of person in different places within area of Baghdad, Iraq. There are a lot of types of mobility model but we use Random Way Point (RWP) because it is simple, most common use and needs less memory and time for computation. The geographical information and maps of the cities are used to tell the person about the constraints and correct the direction of motion in different areas to generate more accurate data. Tested areas are quite different in style, structure, social, history and culture. The most similar thing between them is that they are both in continuously changing which is the one of biggest difficulties in designing the city. Al-Sadar city is one of biggest population city in Baghdad, Iraq. It has three millions people population. We choose 5000 users moves from Al-Sadar city to two different places in Baghdad: Al-Khadmia and Al-Zawra. Al-Khadmiia is old and religion place and Al-Zawra is biggest public garden in Baghdad. In our work, we find the best ways that connect Al-Sadar city with both places. We decide the best ways depending on distances and traffic between them. It gives good method to build smart transportation and smart city using mobility and traffic models. .This paper will help urban decision maker to suggest the analytical model for urban space and have a clear picture about the city: how can it change, how do the people move in the city, what are the problems and how can solve them to generate smart city.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Towards Improving Resilience of Smart Urban Electricity Networks by Interactively Assessing Potential Microgrids

Authors:

Eng Tseng Lau and Kok Keong Chai

Abstract: When a city adds a renewable generation to improve its carbon footprint, this step towards a greener city can be a step towards a smarter city. Strategical positioning of new urban electricity components makes the city more resilient to electricity outages. Money and resilience are two conflicting goals in this case. In case of blackouts, renewable generation, other than distributed combustion generations, can serve critical demand to essential city nodes, such as hospitals, water purification facilities, and police stations. Not the last, the city level stakeholders might be interested in envisioning monetary saving related to introducing a renewable. To provide decision makers with resilience and monetary information, it is needed to analyze the impact of introducing the renewable into the grid. This paper introduces a novel tool suitable for this purpose and reports on the validation efforts. The outcomes indicate that predicted outcomes of two alternative points of introducing renewables into the grid can be analyzed with the help of the tool and ultimately be meaningfully compared.

Posters
Paper Nr: 21
Title:

An Assessment of Feasibility of Energy Saving Measures Applied for a Hospital

Authors:

Cheng-Shu Kuo, Chen-Pu Wang and Fu-Jen Wang

Abstract: The objective of this study, including field investigations and simulations, is to evaluate the feasibility of retrofit for energy performance of a hospital in the midst of Taiwan. This hospital, twelve stories and two floors of basements, has 37490 m2 of gross floor area, consuming around 8500000 kWh annually. The current internal systems of this hospital present relevant signs of degradation and obsolescence. Concerning this matter, the retrofit plan of internal systems for this hospital is conducted to improve energy performance. Based on ASHRAE procedures for commercial building energy audits (PCBEA), field study and energy audits were conducted to collect information of building geometry, building materials, space types, density and activities of people, capacity of HVAC system, loads and operating schedules of lighting and internal equipment. Using this information, a hospital energy model with the current internal system arrangements is established using EnergyPlus software, calibrated by field information of this building as a baseline. The energy saving potentials of several energy saving measures applied such as high-performance chillers and lighting devices, window glass with tinted film and energy management resulting from EnergyPlus simulations have been examined with reference to the cooling energy demand. The retrofit feasibility has also been evaluated in terms of annual savings and pay-back period of the investment. Those analyses could be beneficial to establish a feasible retrofit plan for energy saving of this building.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Towards a Net-Zero Energy District Transformation in a Mono-criterion Scenario Analysis - The Case of Bo01, Malmö District

Authors:

Sesil Koutra and Vincent Becue

Abstract: Transforming cities to deal with the resource scarcity and the threats of the climate change remain major challenges in the urban development. Hence, districts are already taking an active key role in European policies. Buildings are a key consumer of energy worldwide representing over than 40% of the overall energy consumption at European level. In this current context of arising interest, reducing energy consumption is an important target. During the last years, the ‘zero energy idea’ has been introduced in international scientific literature review aiming at a more sustainable urban and built environment focusing on individual buildings by articulating the requirements for an annual basis of an energy balance equal to zero. ‘U-ZED’ (Urban-Zero Energy Districts) methodological assessment tool focuses on the challenge of zero energy objective on a district scale. In this paper, the analysis emphasises the ‘transformation’ of Bo01 Malmö area in a mixed-use zero energy district.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

A Comparative Study on User Characteristics of an E-car Pooling Service in Universities in Europe

Authors:

Fivos Galatoulas, Sesil Koutra and Pawel Rycerski

Abstract: An impactful solution for confronting critical environmental problems may be pursued within the context of e-carpooling services. Nevertheless, a crucial part in our intervention through the introduction of efficient carpooling systems is that of the conceptualization of user preferences and attributes. This study presents a comparison between two surveys focused on a respondent sample consisting mainly of members of a university community. Specifically, the first survey involved students and employees of a private academic institution (University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain) while the second members of a public institution in (University of Mons, Hainaut, Belgium).

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Public Transport Stops State Detection and Propagation - Warsaw Use Case

Authors:

Marcin Luckner

Abstract: Publication of information on public transport in a form acceptable to third–party developers can improve a quality of services offered to the citizens. Usually, published data are limited to localisations of the stops and the schedules. However, a public transport model based on these data is incomplete without information about a current state of the stops. In this paper, we present a system that observes public sources of information on public transport such as Twitter feeds and official web pages hosted by the City of Warsaw. The incoming messages are parsed to extract information on events that concern public transport lines and stops. Extracted information allows us to detect a current state of the stops and to create linguistically independent and spatial oriented information in Geography Markup Language format that can be published using a web service. The system has been tested on real data from Warsaw district and the suburban zones.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Ubiquitous Environmental Monitoring as Decision Tool - MONITAR SENSE: An Environmental Tool

Authors:

Paulo Pinho and Sérgio Lopes

Abstract: Ambient (outdoor) Environmental Quality (AEQ) of urban areas and Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) of buildings are recognized as key factors that contribute to improve the position on ranking of smart cities. The challenge is being able to evaluate AEQ and IEQ in large scale, and making the results available, in real-time, so that decision makers can react according to the received information. Monitar started the implementation of an AEQ and IEQ monitoring network based on new environmental sensors and information and communication technologies (ICT), such as a web-based platform, in order to monitor environmental parameters in a large area at a lower cost than conventional environmental monitoring networks and to disseminate information to become available for decision. The data collected are the base for decision support tool to be used by building and district managers and also individual people. In terms of Smart City, in its component Smart Environment, the monitoring network uses different equipment that due to their dimension and price can be placed in several locations. ICT supports Smart Governance and Smart Living, also addressed by accessing information helping changing people’s behaviour. This paper describes the Environmental Monitoring Network applied by Monitar (designated MONITAR SENSE) in Central Portugal namely the mainframe and some results.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Evaluating the Impact of Smart City Initiatives - The Torino Living Lab Experience

Authors:

Adriano Tanda

Abstract: Launched in January 2016 by the city of Turin, the Torino Living Lab initiative has been designed with the goal of fostering innovation and entrepreneurship and include the citizens in the Smart City innovation process. Aimed to private organizations and startups, the initiative identified the most promising Smart City technologies, systems, and applications, and gave them an opportunity to be tested in a real-life environment. This paper presents a formal methodology for impact assessment and measurement of success of the Torino Living Lab initiative. A procedure of ex-ante and ex-post measure is established upon review of research literature on Living Lab approaches. 16 performance indicators are selected and adapted to the characteristics of the initiative. Finally, some key takeaways resulting from the preliminary investigation are presented.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Wireless Power Transmission in Smart Cities: The wIshood - Wireless Smart Neighborhood

Authors:

Genaro Longoria

Abstract: Wireless power transmission (WPT) of scale is the next step in power electronics. In this paper, we propose the Wireless Smart Neighborhood (wIshood). The idea presented serves smart city planners and developers to consider the future societal impacts of current and expected technological advancement. The wIshood merges ICT, IoT, CC, SDN and WPT to propose a solution to foster the creation and growth of the building blocks of modern societies. We outline the architecture and challenges of wireless smart neighborhoods. The wIshood is a solution to electricity congestion and deployment costs of transmission and distribution infrastructure.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

Steps Towards Simulating Smart Cities and Smart Islands with a Shared Generic Framework - A Case Study of London and Reunion Island

Authors:

Tahina Ralitera, Maxime Ferard and Gonzalo Bustos-Turu

Abstract: Simulation models can be used as decision support tools for smart city design and planning. They allow to evaluate the possible consequences of projects, before their implementation in the real world. Decision makers could benefit from replicable ones that can be relevant and easily transferable from one territory to another so solutions can be compared and re-use of model components can save time. In this paper we consider the case of citizen’s mobility flow simulation. However, most of such simulation models are designed to be suitable for a specific kind of territory. Some of them are reusable, but in a context that does not differ much from the original one for which they were designed, or require lots of changes to be relevant in another context. We classify those contexts into urban and insular and we show that despite their difference, they could be complementary. We demonstrate that testing a simulation model designed for an urban context, in a context with strong constraints can help in its consolidation. Thereby, after testing an Agent Based Simulation Model originally applied to a case study in London, in Reunion Island, we present a more generic simulation model that works for both systems.